Specialized Planetary Cartography Database
Papers about the specialized planetary cartography database / updated 2015
- Shingareva K. B. (2000) Planetary Cartography Data Base, Thesen WG ACI Modification of Data Base during ISPRS Congress, Amsterdam, Holland, July 2000, pp. 12-15
- Leonenko S. M., Shingareva K. B. (2003) Specialized Planetary Cartography Data Base. ISPRS WG IV/9: Extraterrestrial Mapping Workshop “Advances in Planetary Mapping 2003”, Lunar and Planetary Institute, Houston, Texas, USA, pp35-38
- Cherepanova E., K. Shingareva, I. Karachevtseva, S. Leonenko, E. Lazarev: Extraterrestrial gis development on solar system bodies: the earth moon geodatabase Proceedings of the 23rd International Cartographic Conference, Moscow, Russia (Planetary Cartography Session) (2007)
- Zubarev А., Nadezhdina I. and Konopikhin. Problems of remote sensing data processing for modelling of small bodies of the Solar system// CPRSES. -2012. Vol. 9. pp. 277-285
- Karachevtseva I., Kokhanov A., Rodionova J., Konopikhin A., Zubarev A., Nadezhdina I., Mitrokhina L., Patratiy V., Oberst J. Development of a new Phobos Atlas based on Mars Express image data // Planetary and Space Science. (Volume 108, April 2015, Pages 24–30)
- Kokhanov A., Kreslavsky M., Karachevtseva I., 2015. Small impact craters in the Polar regions of the Moon: Peculiarities of morphometric characteristics // Solar System research, Vol. 49, #5, pp 295-302
- Basilevsky A.T., Kreslavsky M.A., Karachevtseva I.P., Gusakova E.N. Morphometry of small impact craters in the
Lunokhod-1 and Lunokhod-2 study areas. // Planetary and Space Science, Volume. 92, pp. 77-87, 2014.
- Grishakina E., Lazarev E. Compiling the hypsometric map of the moon for the atlas relief of terrestrial planets and their satellites // 4M-S3 2013
Our analysis of existing Databases (DB) (Shingareva 2000), namely: Planetary Data System (PDS), Center of Mars Exploration (CMEX), Malin Space Science System (MSSS) and others showed that they consist of a block of programs for educational and advertising purposes oriented on separate missions or only in scientific direction. These DBs use hypertext-based visualization, but they do not provide the possibility of detailed work with various – e.g. thematic – maps of planets and their moons in a GIS environment. The Planetary Data System (PDS) was created in the USA in order to inform the scientific and general public about the new information sent to Earth during space missions. During recent years this system was upgraded several times and got various new parts. It has became very complex and waits for next modification. It contains numerous images of celestial bodies at various scales. Other online research databases that include images as well as detailed morphometric, topographic (height) or geologic data, also exist for selected feature types of selected planetary bodies: the crater database(s) of Mars, Callisto, Ganymede, Venus and the Earth, or the mountain database of Io are such examples (EID 2003; Herrick; Schenk 1996a, Schenk 1996b, Hargitai and Schenk 2003). In these databases the particular features can be searched by their coordinates, names or other morphological data. Other on- or offline databases do not include images for each individual feature (Rodionova et al. 2000; Barlow and Bradley 1990). These are essential raw materials for the cartographers.
The existing DBs are not universal enough. That is why it is useful for the scientific community to develop a Solar System Bodies DB with a map-oriented data access. Its main content will be thematic maps characterizing such aspects as morphology, gravity anomalies, hypsometry, colorimetric and polarimetric properties, climate parameters etc. of celestial bodies as well as maps of selected areas of interest. Its contents must include a large amount of geographic and thematic maps of Solar System bodies. It is also necessary to take into account the specific characters of celestial bodies and the grade of their investigation. In addition, the mathematic base of maps, data describing relief features with their characteristics, orbital or physical data on the properties of the bodies would also be included.
The DB structure will organize the data into various levels for different groups of users (Leonenko and Shingareva, 2003). These levels will depend on the map scale the user need, on the accuracy level and the concentration of the cartographic information. The users can define how detailed information they need (scientist, non-specialist, student, children etc. levels). The cartographic information must be given not only for the whole celestial body but also for areas of special interest.
The electronic version of the Atlas of Terrestrial Planets and their Moons (Bugaevsky et al. 1992) will be used for base maps at the first stage of the work.
GeoDraw/Geograph have been chosen as topological editor for the digital maps which are also capable of creating a GIS. The structure of the spatial data of a digital map (including relations of connectivity, contiguity, neighborhood, an enclosure of objects, etc.) allows the changing of the relations between spatial objects and their attributive data. GeoDraw allows transformation of maps into others GIS formats (both topological such as ARC/INFO, and not topological as MapInfo etc.). The projection can be chosen from over 40 types. It is capable of the integration of digital “map sheets,” and can work with several maps to form a multilayered structure at various scales (from 1:500 to 1:50.000.000).
The main goal of the system is to bring map-oriented information to the users. Two main user groups can be defined: those who use the DB for educational purposes (students, teachers, amateur astronomers etc.) and those who use it for scientific (research) purposes (for example to select candidate sites for future explorations). The system is built using the principles of geoinformation systems, i.e. using a large number of thematic layers.
For the “general interest” group the thematic maps with different layers are used. This group needs carefully visualized data, well prepared “map kits”. On the other hand, the “researchers” will need raw data with high precision, and a need to work on multiple layers using various scales at the same time. This DB includes a scientific information part, results from various missions including data from and about the missions; data from terrestrial observations and also scientific investigation results (theories, models). It would include descriptions and bibliographical data of the published maps of the particular planetary body. As a cartographic base, two maps at scales of 1:50.000.000 and 1:5.000.000 will be used. In order to have better opportunities for searching and for selecting areas of interest to transfer to the next map, the base map is divided into blocks corresponding to the map sheets of 1:5.000.000 scale. It is possible to use a shaded relief map as a base-map. The main idea is an application of various layers with thematic content or – if the user needs it – only with coordinate grid, names of relief features, tracking and so on. The proposed map-oriented DB allows to perform numerous tasks: for example to display the map of a celestial body along with images of its surface taken at various resolutions from different missions; to provide a possibility of operative selection of perspective exploration areas etc. Such a universal database could serve as a basic tool in astrogeology, where most information available is in visual form: images and maps.