Report to the Executive Committee for the 1999 General Assembly of the International Cartographic Association

Presented to the ICA council meeting held in Ottawa, Canada, August, 1999

Planetary Cartography Working Group of the International Cartographic Association

Working Group Co-Chairs:
James R. Zimbelman, Smithsonian Institution, USA, and
Kira B. Shingareva, Moscow State University, Russia

This is a portion of a new simplified map of the planet Mars, with explanatory text given in five languages on the back of the map. It is the first map product generated through the efforts of Commission members.

The Planetary Cartography Working Group was formally approved at the 1997 ICA meeting in Stockholm, so group activities are restricted to the last two years of the present term. As of July, 1999, the working group consists of 31 members representing 4 space-faring countries. A World Wide Web site exists for the working group at http://www.nasm.si.edu/research/ceps/ica. Initial responses to a survey of planetary cartographic products throughout the world were limited, so we are assessing how best to reach the global audience that has interest in planetary cartography. A generalized map of Mars with accompanying text in English, Russian, German, French, and Spanish was generated and printed (in very limited quantities) by working group members in 1999. We made some initial contacts with representatives of international organizations involved in space exploration, which will be the primary source for all future information directly applicable to planetary cartography. The working group met at least once each year: the first official meeting was held during the June, 1997 ICA conference in Stockholm, and working group meetings were subsequently held in June, 1998, in Munich, Germany, and in May, 1999, in Moscow, Russia.. We have started collecting an international glossary of terms used in planetary cartography but which can have diverse interpretations in different languages. All of these efforts represent only the first stages of what we envision will be an expanding list of activities to address the goals of the working group.


2) Co-Chairs:
James Zimbelman
Center for Earth and Planetary Studies
Smithsonian Institution
PO Box 37012
National Air and Space Museum, MRC 315
Washington, D.C. 20013-7012
UNITED STATES OF AMERICA
Ph: 202-786-2981
Fx: 202-786-2566

Kira Shingareva
Moscow State University for Geodesy and Cartography
4 Gorokhovsky per.
Moscow 103064
RUSSIA
Ph: 7-095-261-3948
Fx: 7-095-267-4681

3) Terms of Reference (1995-1999)

Overall Theme: Harmonization of international planetary cartography efforts. Note that “harmonization” is not the same as “homogenization”. We are not advocating an effort to make all national programs look the same. Instead, we are interested in facilitating the free interchange of ideas and information between various national efforts that incorporate some component of planetary cartography.

1. The promotion of all aspects of planetary cartography in an international setting, particularly 1) scientific research, 2) education, and 3) public outreach.

2. Documentation and analysis of the present status of planetary cartography within the international community.

3. Evaluation of possible methods for harmonization of planetary cartographic activities around the world.

4. Communication of conclusions and ideas with groups representing other international scientific and educational bodies.

These terms will be addressed through the following Proposed List of Activities:

1. Establish a World Wide Web site to enhance rapid communication. The Web page should be updated regularly to facilitate communications of planetary cartographic information throughout the world.

2. Collect information on the global status of planetary cartographic products and plans. This will be achieved through a survey of planetary cartographic products and services available in as many countries as possible, dependent upon identifying at least one point of contact within each country surveyed.

3. Production of a multilingual planetary map series. The first map will be of Mars, with accompanying text in at least English, Russian, German, French, and Spanish. Subsequent maps of other planets would follow on roughly a two-year basis per map.

4. Establish liaison between the ICA and various national or international space-related groups. Groups targeted for first attention in this effort are: IAU, ISPRS, COSPAR, USGS, NASA, RKI, DLR], NASDA, ESA, CSA, IAF, and ISRL.

5. Schedule at least one meeting per year where the Working Group members can discuss issues face to face.

6. Generation of multilingual glossary of terms used in planetary cartography. The goal here is to document terms that have different uses in various national programs.

4) Members

Charles Acton
Jet Propulsion Laboratory
Mail Stop 183-501
4800 Oak Grove Drive
Pasadena, CA 91109, U.S.A.

Dr. Raymond Arvidson
Department of Earth & Planetary Sciences
Campus Box 1169
Washington University at St. Louis
St. Louis, MO 63130, U.S.A.

Jennifer Blue
Branch of Astrogeology
U.S. Geological Survey
2255 N. Gemini Drive
Flagstaff, AZ 86001, U.S.A.

Prof. Manfred Buchroithner
Institute for Cartography
Dresden University of Technology
D-01062 Dresden
Germany

Dr. G. Burba
Moscow State University for Geodesy and Cartography
4 Gorokhovsky per.
Moscow 103064
Russia

Prof. James Carter
Department of Geography and Geology
Illinois State University
Mail Stop 4400
Normal, IL 61790-4400, U.S.A.

Dr. David Crown
Department of Geology and Planetary Science
321 Engineering Hall
University of Pittsburgh
Pittsburgh, PA 15260-3332, U.S.A.

Dr. Larry Crumpler
New Mexico Museum of Natural History and Science
1801 Mountain Road NW
Albuquerque, NM 87104-1375, U.S.A.

Dr. Merton Davies
The Rand Corporation
Santa Monica, CA 90406-2138, U.S.A.

Prof. Egon Dorrer
Institute for Photogrammetry and Cartography
Munich Bundeswehr University
D-85577 Neubiberg
Germany

Dr. Thomas Duxbury
Jet Propulsion Laboratory
Mail Stop 183-501
4800 Oak Grove Drive
Pasadena, CA 91109, U.S.A.

Dr. Kenneth Edgett
Malin Space Science Systems, Incorporated
P.O. Box 910148
San Diego, CA 92191-0148, U.S.A.

Dr. Vicki Hansen
Department of Geological Sciences
Southern Methodist University
Dallas, TX 75275-0395, U.S.A.

Dr. James Head, III
Department of Geological Sciences
Brown University
Providence, RI 02912-1846, U.S.A.

Dr. Ken Herkenhoff
Branch of Astrogeology
U.S. Geological Survey
2255 N. Gemini Drive
Flagstaff, AZ 86001, U.S.A.

Dr. Randy Kirk
Branch of Astrogeology
U.S. Geological Survey
2255 N. Gemini Drive
Flagstaff, AZ 86001, U.S.A.

Prof. Bianna Krasnopevtseva
Moscow State University for Geodesy and Cartography
4 Gorokhovsky per.
Moscow 103064
Russia

Hartmut Lehmann
Technical University of Berlin
Department for Photogrammetry and Cartography
Sekr. EB 9
Strasse des 17. Juni 135
D-10623 Berlin
Germany

Dr. George McGill
Department of Geosciences
University of Massachusetts
Amherst, MA 01003-5820, U.S.A.

Prof. Jan-Peter Muller
Department of Geomatic Engineering
University College London
Gower Street
London WC1E 6BT
United Kingdom

Dr. Gerhard Neukum
Institute for Planetary Exploration
Deutsche Forschunganstalt fur Luft und Raumfahrt
Berlin
Germany

Dr. Timothy Parker
Jet Propulsion Laboratory
Mail Stop 183-501
4800 Oak Grove Drive
Pasadena, CA 91109, U.S.A.

Dr. James Rice
Lunar and Planetary Laboratory
1629 E. University Blvd.
University of Arizona
Tucson, AZ 85721-0092, U.S.A.

Jeanna Rodinova
Moscow State University for Geodesy and Cartography
4 Gorokhovsky per.
Moscow 103064
Russia

Dr. David Senske
Jet Propulsion Laboratory
Mail Stop 264-580
4800 Oak Grove Drive
Pasadena, CA 91109, U.S.A.

Prof. Kira Shingareva
Moscow State University for Geodesy and Cartography
4 Gorokhovsky per.
Moscow 103064
Russia

Dr. Phillip Stooke
Department of Geography
University of Western Ontario
London, Ontario, Canada N6A 5C2

Dr. Kenneth Tanaka
Branch of Astrogeology
U.S. Geological Survey
2255 N. Gemini Drive
Flagstaff, AZ 86001, U.S.A.

Dr. Steven Williams
Department of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering
College of Engineering and Applied Sciences
University of Colorado at Colorado Springs
1867 Austin Bluffs Parkway, Suite 101
Colorado Springs, CO 80918, U.S.A.

Dr. Michael Wood [past President, ICA]
Centre for Remote Sensing and Mapping Science
Department of Geography
University of Aberdeen
Elphinstone Road
Aberdeen, AB9 2UF
United Kingdom

Dr. Sherman Wu
Branch of Astrogeology
U.S. Geological Survey
2255 N. Gemini Drive
Flagstaff, AZ 86001, U.S.A.

Dr. James Zimbelman
Center for Earth and Planetary Studies
National Air and Space Museum
Smithsonian Institution
Washington, D.C. 20560-0315, U.S.A.

5) Activities according to the terms of reference
The Planetary Cartography Working Group was only formally approved at the 1997 ICA meeting in Stockholm, so our group activities are confined to the last two years of the present term.
i) Do you consider the work completed?
We definitely do not consider the work completed. In fact, it has barely begun.
ii) If not, what progress has been made?
We believe we have made reasonable initial progress on all of the elements of our proposed list of activities. A World Wide Web site dedicated to the working group has been set up http://www.nasm.si.edu/research/ceps/ica. Initial responses to a survey of planetary cartographic products throughout the world received only limited responses, and we are assessing how best to reach the global audience with interests in this subject. A generalized map of Mars with accompanying text in English, Russian, German, French, and Spanish was printed (in very limited quantity) in 1999. We have made initial contacts with members of organizations involved in subjects directly relevant to planetary cartography. The working group met at least once a year (see item 8 below), although attendance was limited to those members who were able to arrange travel at the designated times. We have started collecting an international glossary of terms used in planetary cartography but which can have diverse interpretations in various languages. All of these efforts represent only the beginning stages of what we envision will be required to address the goals of the working group.
iii) Do you think it should be completed?
We do believe that the efforts underway are of value not only to the current planetary science community, but eventually to anyone who becomes interested in learning about the planets and natural satellites through the use of map-based products.
iv) How can this be achieved?
Our current ideas of how to proceed in carrying out the efforts begun during the present term are summarized in our proposed list of activities for the next term (see item 10 below), which are a direct outgrowth the activities initiated during this term.

6) Seminars
No seminars specifically sponsored by the working group were held during the period covered by this report.

7) Publications
i) Were any publications produced?
No publications were produced by the working group, although publications by individual members are directly relevant to issues of interest to the working group (see iv below).
ii) Have they been submitted to the Publication Committee?
No publications have yet been submitted to the Publication Committee.
iii) Are there any in progress?
A generalized map of Mars with marginal text in five languages is in the final stages of preparation. We have not yet identified the appropriate outlet for publication of this unique map. We hope to generate similar maps for other planetary objects during the next term.
iv) Examples of publications by members relevant to planetary cartography:
Dorrer, E. (1998) Towards optimal relief representation from Mars imagery by combination of DEM and SFS, Int. Arch. Photogram. Rem. Sens., vol. 32, pt. 4, 156-161.
Scott, D. H., Dohm J. M. and Zimbelman J. R. (1998) Geologic map of Pavonis Mons volcano, Mars, U.S. Geol. Surv. Misc. Invest. Series Map I-2561, scale 1:1,000,000.
Also note that various working group members presented several abstracts, oral presentations, and posters at the 1997 ICA conference in Stockholm, and many abstracts have been accepted for oral or poster presentations at the 1999 ICA conference in Ottawa.

8) Meetings
i) Meetings held
The first official meeting of the working group was held during the June, 1997 ICA conference in Stockholm. Working group meetings were subsequently held in June, 1998, in Munich, Germany, and in May, 1999, in Moscow, Russia.
ii) Attendance
Stockholm – eight members, including ICA president Michael Wood; Munich – six members; Moscow – four members.
iii) Results
Stockholm – the initial terms of reference and list of activities were formulated.
Munich – refinements to the Mars map were determined, along with discussion of progress on other working group activities.
Moscow – discussion of a multilingual Moon map, and a joint presentation by Shingareva and Buchroithner during the MIIGAIK’s 220th anniversary meeting.

9) Finance
The working group carried out no activities that required funding from the ICA. Individual members received varying degrees of financial support from their home nations or institutions, as well as through competitive grants.

10) Future of the Working Group
Proposed Terms of Reference for 1999-2003

Cartography is no longer confined only to our home planet. The overall theme for this working group is the harmonization of international planetary cartography efforts. Note that “harmonization” is not the same as “homogenization”; we are not advocating an effort to make all national programs look the same. Instead, we are interested in facilitating the free interchange of ideas and information between various national efforts, each of which incorporate some component of planetary cartography. To progress toward this goal, we propose the following terms of reference:

1. The promotion of all aspects of planetary cartography in an international setting. In this effort, we identify three distinct but mutually supportive uses for planetary cartographic materials: cartographic products used for scientific research, materials intended for use in education, and materials for public outreach. Each national effort will have its own unique mix of these three uses, but we wish to encourage the growth of all three aspects in each national program.

2. Documentation and analysis of the present status of planetary cartography within the international community. This effort was started during the previous term, but we intend to seek ways to solicit broader international participation in the surveys.

3. Evaluation of possible methods to enhance harmonization of planetary cartographic activities around the world. During the last term, we progressed on the development of a map of Mars with marginal notes presented in several languages. This map is nearing production, and we intend to explore how multi-lingual planetary maps (and supporting documentation) can be used effectively in several different countries. Our goal is to develop materials that can help disseminate some of the wonders of planetary science to all nations, not just the technological countries who are presently involved in planetary exploration. We anticipate that the vast potential of Internet-based cartography will play a significant role in this effort.

4. Communication of conclusions and ideas with groups representing a wide variety of international scientific and educational communities. We have begun the process of identifying representatives from various interest groups within the nations currently involved in space exploration. The goal is to provide a mechanism to facilitate the free dissemination of information between groups that utilize various aspects of planetary information, but which may not be talking to each other effectively at present.

These terms will be addressed through the following list of proposed activities. It is likely that this list will increase as discussions continue within the group, but they provide the basic framework to guide our efforts during the coming term.

Proposed List of Activities for 1999-2003

1. Expand the World Wide Web site that was begun during the past term. The web page (http://www.nasm.si.edu/research/ceps/ica/) currently contains only basic materials about the Working Group and its goals. We intend to expand it to include links to web-based materials utilizing planetary cartographic products, which now exist in various forms in several nations. We also hope to make the Web site a place to share ideas, problems, and solutions related to the widest possible dissemination of planetary information.

2. Continue to collect information on the global status of planetary cartographic products and plans. This effort was begun during the last term in the form of an e-mail and regular mail survey which produced interesting but limited responses. We will investigate additional ways in which to compile information about planetary cartographic holdings and uses throughout the world, the results of which will eventually be made readily available over the Working Group Web site.

3. Production of a multi-lingual series of planetary maps. This work was begun last term with the development of a basic map of the physiography of Mars with accompanying text in English, Russian, German, French, and Spanish. We would like to eventually include Asiatic languages as well. After assessments of the strengths and weaknesses of the Mars map (including the possibility of including background information about the planet printed on the back side of the map), we intend to pursue subsequent multilingual maps of other planetary objects, beginning with a map of the Moon. It is our hope that these products will prove useful in disseminating planetary information to nations and cultures that may, at present, not have ready access to such information.

4. Expand liaison between the ICA, through the Working Group, and various national or international space-related groups. This effort was begun during the last term, but we recognize that many important agencies have not yet been contacted. We intend to identify persons who can serve as points of contact for inquiries about the activities or products available through the various agencies.

5. Schedule at least one meeting per year where the Working Group members can discuss issues face to face. In spite of the wonders of electronic information technology, it is still important to schedule regular times where we can meet and discuss issues in person. We will utilize the biannual ICA meetings as opportunities for the Working Group to meet, with at least one meeting annually during the intervening years at an institution of the various group members.

6. Expansion of a multilingual glossary of terms used in planetary cartography. This effort was begun during the last term, but the number of terms and languages is not yet representative of the need. The goal is to document terms that have different uses in various national programs, which can at times lead to confusion in the intended use of some products. One example is ‘hypsometric’ in Russian is equivalent to ‘topographic’ in English and German usage. We believe that such a glossary could be helpful to a wide range of potential users of planetary cartographic materials.

11) Comments

No additional comments.

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